Maine (/meɪn/ (listen)) is the northernmost state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. Maine is the 12th smallest by area, the 9th least populous, and the 13th least densely populated of the 50 U.S. states. It is bordered by New Hampshire to the west, the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast, and the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Québec to the northeast and northwest, respectively. Maine is the only state to border just one other state, is the easternmost among the contiguous United States, and is the northernmost state east of the Great Lakes.
To the south and east is the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and northeast is New Brunswick, a province of Canada. The Canadian province of Québec is to the northwest. Maine is both the northernmost state in New England and also the largest, accounting for almost half of the region’s entire land area. Maine is the only state to border exactly one other American state (New Hampshire).
Maine is the easternmost state in the United States in both its extreme points and its geographic center. The town of Lubec is the easternmost organized settlement in the United States. Its Quoddy Head Lighthouse is also the closest place in the United States to Africa and Europe. Estcourt Station is Maine’s northernmost point, as well as the northernmost point in New England. (For more information see extreme points of the United States.)
Maine’s Moosehead Lake is the largest lake wholly in New England, since Lake Champlain is located between Vermont, New York and Québec. A number of other Maine lakes, such as South Twin Lake, are described by Thoreau in The Maine Woods (1864). Mount Katahdin is both the northern terminus of the Appalachian Trail, which extends southerly to Springer Mountain, Georgia, and the southern terminus of the new International Appalachian Trail which, when complete, will run to Belle Isle, Newfoundland and Labrador.
Machias Seal Island and North Rock, off the state’s Downeast coast, are claimed by both Canada and the American town of Cutler, and are within one of four areas between the two countries whose sovereignty is still in dispute, but it is the only one of the disputed areas containing land. Also in this easternmost area in the Bay of Fundy is the Old Sow, the largest tidal whirlpool in the Western Hemisphere.
Maine is the least densely populated U.S. state east of the Mississippi River. It is called the Pine Tree State; over 80% of its total land is forested and/or unclaimed. the most forest cover of any U.S. state. In the forested areas of the interior lies much uninhabited land, some of which does not have formal political organization into local units (a rarity in New England). The Northwest Aroostook, Maine unorganized territory in the northern part of the state, for example, has an area of 2,668 square miles (6,910 km) and a population of 10, or one person for every 267 square miles (690 km).
Maine is in the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests biome. The land near the southern and central Atlantic coast is covered by the mixed oaks of the Northeastern coastal forests. The remainder of the state, including the North Woods, is covered by the New England-Acadian forests.
Maine has almost 230 miles (400 km) of coastline (and 3,500 miles (5,600 km) of tidal coastline). West Quoddy Head, in Lubec, Maine, is the easternmost point of land in the 48 contiguous states. Along the famous rock-bound coast of Maine are lighthouses, beaches, fishing villages, and thousands of offshore islands, including the Isles of Shoals which straddle the New Hampshire border. There are jagged rocks and cliffs and many bays and inlets. Inland are lakes, rivers, forests, and mountains. This visual contrast of forested slopes sweeping down to the sea has been summed up by American poet Edna St. Vincent Millay of Rockland and Camden, Maine, in “Renascence”:
Geologists describe this type of landscape as a “drowned coast”, where a rising sea level has invaded former land features, creating bays out of valleys and islands out of mountain tops. A rise in the elevation of the land due to the melting of heavy glacier ice caused a slight rebounding effect of underlying rock; this land rise, however, was not enough to eliminate all the effect of the rising sea level and its invasion of former land features.
Much of Maine’s geomorphology was created by extended glacial activity at the end of the last ice age. Prominent glacial features include Somes Sound and Bubble Rock, both part of Acadia National Park on Mount Desert Island. Carved by glaciers, Somes Sound is considered to be the only fjord on the eastern seaboard and reaches depths of 175 feet (50 m). The extreme depth and steep drop-off allow large ships to navigate almost the entire length of the sound. These features also have made it attractive for boat builders, such as the prestigious Hinckley Yachts.
Bubble Rock, a glacial erratic, is a large boulder perched on the edge of Bubble Mountain in Acadia National Park. By analyzing the type of granite, geologists were able to discover that glaciers carried Bubble Rock to its present location from near Lucerne – 30 miles (48 km) away. The Iapetus Suture runs through the north and west of the state, being underlain by the ancient Laurentian terrane, and the south and east underlain by the Avalonian terrane.
Acadia National Park is the only national park in New England. Areas under the protection and management of the National Park Service include:
The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Maine was 1,338,404 on July 1, 2018, a 0.76% increase since the 2010 United States Census. The population density of the state is 41.3 people per square mile, making it the least densely populated state east of the Mississippi River. As of 2010 Maine was also the most rural state in the Union, with only 38.7% of the state’s population living within urban areas. As explained in detail under “Geography”, there are large tracts of uninhabited land in some remote parts of the interior of the state, particularly in the North Maine Woods.
The mean population center of Maine is located in Kennebec County, just east of Augusta. The Greater Portland metropolitan area is the most densely populated with nearly 40% of Maine’s population. This area spans three counties and includes many farms and wooded areas; the 2016 population of Portland proper was 66,937.
Maine has experienced a very slow rate of population growth since the 1990 census; its rate of growth (0.57%) since the 2010 census ranks 45th of the 50 states. The modest population growth in the state has been concentrated in the southern coastal counties; with more diverse populations slowly moving into these areas of the state. However, the northern, more rural areas of the state have experienced a slight decline in population in recent years.
According to the 2010 Census, Maine has the highest percentage of non-Hispanic whites of any state, at 94.4% of the total population. In 2011, 89.0% of all births in the state were to non-Hispanic white parents.
The table below shows the racial composition of Maine’s population as of 2016.
According to the 2016 American Community Survey, 1.5% of Maine’s population were of Hispanic or Latino origin (of any race): Mexican (0.4%), Puerto Rican (0.4%), Cuban (0.1%), and other Hispanic or Latino origin (0.6%). The five largest ancestry groups were: English (20.7%), Irish (17.3%), French (15.7%), German (8.1%), and American (7.8%).
People citing that they are American are of overwhelmingly English descent, but have ancestry that has been in the region for so long (often since the 1600s) that they choose to identify simply as Americans.
Maine has the highest percentage of French Americans of any state. Most of them are of Canadian origin, but in some cases have been living there since prior to the American Revolutionary War. There are particularly high concentrations in the northern part of Maine in Aroostook County, which is part of a cultural region known as Acadia that goes over the border into New Brunswick. Along with the Acadian population in the north, many French came from Quebec as immigrants between 1840 and 1930.
The upper Saint John River valley area was once part of the so-called Republic of Madawaska, before the frontier was decided in the Webster-Ashburton Treaty of 1842. Over one quarter of the population of Lewiston, Waterville, and Biddeford are Franco-American. Most of the residents of the Mid Coast and Down East sections are chiefly of British heritage. Smaller numbers of various other groups, including Irish, Italian and Polish, have settled throughout the state since the late 19th and early 20th century immigration waves.
Note: Births in table don’t add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.
Maine does not have an official language, but the most widely spoken language in the state is English. The 2000 Census reported 92.25% of Maine residents aged five and older spoke only English at home. French-speakers are the state’s chief linguistic minority; census figures show that Maine has the highest percentage of people speaking French at home of any state: 5.28% of Maine households are French-speaking, compared with 4.68% in Louisiana, which is the second highest state. Although rarely spoken, Spanish is the third-most-common language in Maine, after English and French.
According to the Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA), the religious affiliations of Maine in 2010 were:
The Catholic Church was the largest religious institution with 202,106 members, the United Methodist Church had 28,329 members, the United Church of Christ had 22,747 members
In 2010, a study named Maine as the least religious state in the United States.
Zip Code Map
Maine neighborhoods include: Acton, Albany Twp, Albion, Alfred, Amherst, Anson, Arrowsic, Arundel, Ashland, Atkinson, Auburn, Augusta, Bailey Island, Bangor, Bar Harbor, Bass Harbor, Bath, Belfast, Benton, Bethel, Biddeford, Birch Harbor, Blue Hill, Bowdoin, Bowdoinham, Bowerbank, Bridgton, Brooklin, Brooks, Brooksville, Brownfield, Brunswick, Bryant Pond, Bucksport, Bustins Island, Buxton, Camden, Canaan, Cape Elizabeth, Cape Neddick, Caratunk, Caribou, Carmel, Carrabassett Valley, Casco, Castine, Castle Hill, Center Lovell, Chelsea, China, Cliff Island, Clifton, Connor Twp, Corea, Cumberland Center, Cumberland Foreside, Cushing, Dayton, Deer Isle, Denmark, Dennysville, Diamond Cove, Dover Foxcroft, Dresden, East Machias, Eastport, East Waterboro, Eddington, Eliot, Ellsworth, Fairfield, Falmouth, Fletchers Landing Twp, Fort Kent, Frankfort, Franklin, Freeport, Frenchboro, Frenchville, Friendship, Glenburn, Glen Cove, Gorham, Gouldsboro, Grand Isle, Gray, Greenbush, Greene, Greenville, Greenwood, Hampden, Hancock, Harborside, Harpswell, Harrison, Hebron, Hermon, Hope, Islesboro, Kennebunk, Kennebunkport, Kingfield, Kittery, Kittery Point, Lakeville, Lamoine, Lebanon, Lee, Levant, Lewiston, Limestone, Lincoln, Lincolnville, Lisbon, Lisbon Falls, Litchfield, Little Deer Isle, Lovell, Lubec, Lyman, Madawaska, Madison, Manchester, Mapleton, Mariaville, Mason Twp, Mercer, Mexico, Milton Twp, Minot, Monhegan, Monroe, Morrill, Mount Desert, Naples, Newburgh, New Canada, New Gloucester, New Sweden, Norridgewock, North Anson, North Berwick, North Haven, Northport, North Turner, North Yarmouth, Norway, Oakland, Ogunquit, Old Orchard Beach, Orland, Orrs Island, Otis, Otisfield, Owls Head, Oxford, Patten, Peaks Island, Penobscot, Phillips, Phippsburg, Pine Point, Poland, Portland, Pownal, Prospect Harbor, Rangeley, Raymond, Readfield, Richmond, Rockland, Rockport, Rockwood, Rumford, Sabattus, Saco, Saint Agatha, Saint David, Sandy River Plt, Sanford, Sargentville, Scarborough, Searsmont, Searsport, Sebasco Estates, Sebec, Sedgwick, Shapleigh, Sidney, Sinclair, Skowhegan, South Berwick, South China, South Paris, South Portland, Springfield, Springvale, Standish, Steep Falls, St John Plt, Stockton Springs, Stoneham, Stonington, Sunset, Surry, Sweden, Thorndike, Topsham, Trenton, Turner, Unity, Vassalboro, Vinalhaven, Waldoboro, Waltham, Waterford, Waterville, Wells, West Bath, Westbrook, West Enfield, West Forks, West Newfield, West Paris, Windham, Windsor, Winslow, Winter Harbor, Winterport, Winthrop, Woolwich, Yarmouth, York
For more information, see Maine wiki